Robustness, redundancy, and flexibility are qualities that help to conceive systems and assets that can withstand shocks and stresses as well as the willingness to use alternative strategies to facilitate rapid recovery.

Flexibility refers to the willingness and ability to adopt alternative strategies in response to changing circumstances or sudden crises. Systems can be made more flexible through introducing new technologies or knowledge, including recognising traditional practices. For example, in times of crisis, cities may redeploy public buses for emergency evacuations.